Describes How Structuralism And Functionalism Influenced Contemporary Psychology
When thinking about structuralism vs. functionalism, psychologists usually think of two of the oldest schools and the argument over how to explain human behavior and examine the mind. This debate first began when psychology was formed as a discipline separate from philosophy.
describes how structuralism and functionalism influenced contemporary psychology
A considerable advantage of functionalism takes into account the dynamic nature of behavior. Unlike structuralism, functionalism recognizes that behavior changes over time and is often adaptive. On top of that, functionalism is more concerned with the real-world applications of psychology.
Structuralism was a philosophy that shaped psychology as a separate subject and affected the development of experimental psychology. On the other hand, functionalism arose as a critique of structuralism.
The major distinction between structuralism vs. functionalism in psychology may be seen in their main focus of study. Structuralism is a branch of psychology that analyzes the human mind and the fundamental units that may be found through introspection. Functionalism, however, claims that studying components of behavior and the adaptation of the human mind to different environments is vital.
Both perspectives remark on the importance of the mind in shaping behavior. Additionally, structuralism and functionalism place emphasis on the role of instincts and drives in human behavior. Finally, both view society as a system made up of interrelated parts.
Meanwhile, functionalism focused on the real-world applications of psychology, and it helped establish the field of behaviorism. Additionally, functionalism inspired many of the scientific methods used in psychology to this day.
Functionalism and structuralism are alike in many ways. Both perspectives emphasize the importance of understanding how the parts of a system work together to produce observed behaviors. Additionally, both approaches focus on patterns and relationships rather than individual elements.Ultimately, both functionalism and structuralism brought major contributions to our understanding of the mind and behavior.
Wilhelm Wundt, the first man to introduce structuralism, changed all of that when he began to study the human mind within a controlled setting, in his laboratory in Germany. Functionalism, first proposed by American philosopher William James, would soon emerge as a response to this approach. Structuralism and functionalism would set the stage for other schools of thought to follow, and also have a major impact on education, mental health treatments, and psychological research methods used today.
The foundations of structuralism in psychology were first established by German physiologist, Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920). Wundt is often referred to as the "Father of Psychology". He published Principles of Physiological Psychology in 1873, which would later be considered the first psychology textbook. He believed that psychology should be the scientific study of the conscious experience. Wundt sought to quantify the basic components of thought, to understand and identify the structures of conscious thought. This can be compared to how a chemist seeks to understand the basic elements of an object to understand its structure. This approach led to the development of structuralism.
William James, an American philosopher often referred to as the "Father of American Psychology", took the opposite approach to structuralism in understanding the conscious mind. Influenced by Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection, James sought to observe how consciousness interacted with its environment as a means of survival. He believed that psychology should focus on the function, or the why of behavior and conscious thought. This is the basis of functionalism as a school of thought.
American philosopher John Dewey was another key player in the establishment of functionalism as a school of thought. Dewey believed that there is intersectionality between philosophy, pedagogy, and psychology, and that they should work together. Dewey agreed with James' view that psychology should focus on how mental processes allow an organism to survive its environment. In 1896, Dewey wrote a paper entitled "The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology", where he adamantly disagreed with the structuralist approach. In his opinion, structuralism completely disregarded the importance of adaptation.
While reading Spencer's massive volumes can be tedious (long passages explicating the organic analogy, with reference to cells, simple organisms, animals, humans and society), there are some important insights that have quietly influenced many contemporary theorists, including Talcott Parsons, in his early work The Structure of Social Action (1937). Cultural anthropology also consistently uses functionalism.
Talcott Parsons began writing in the 1930s and contributed to sociology, political science, anthropology, and psychology. Structural functionalism and Parsons have received a lot of criticism. Numerous critics have pointed out Parsons' underemphasis of political and monetary struggle, the basics of social change, and the by and large "manipulative" conduct unregulated by qualities and standards. Structural functionalism, and a large portion of Parsons' works, appear to be insufficient in their definitions concerning the connections amongst institutionalized and non-institutionalized conduct, and the procedures by which institutionalization happens.
Structural functionalism reached the peak of its influence in the 1940s and 1950s, and by the 1960s was in rapid decline. By the 1980s, its place was taken in Europe by more conflict-oriented approaches, and more recently by structuralism. While some of the critical approaches also gained popularity in the United States, the mainstream of the discipline has instead shifted to a myriad of empirically oriented middle-range theories with no overarching theoretical orientation. To most sociologists, functionalism is now "as dead as a dodo".
As the influence of functionalism in the 1960s began to wane, the linguistic and cultural turns led to a myriad of new movements in the social sciences: "According to Giddens, the orthodox consensus terminated in the late 1960s and 1970s as the middle ground shared by otherwise competing perspectives gave way and was replaced by a baffling variety of competing perspectives. This third generation of social theory includes phenomenologically inspired approaches, critical theory, ethnomethodology, symbolic interactionism, structuralism, post-structuralism, and theories written in the tradition of hermeneutics and ordinary language philosophy."
Functionalism has the most influence of any theory in contemporary psychology. Psychological functionalism attempts to describe thoughts and what they do without asking how they do it. For functionalists, the mind resembles a computer, and to understand its processes, you need to look at the software, which is what the mind does, without having to understand the hardware that includes the underlying how and why.
Sir Edmund Leach (1910-1989) was very influential in social anthropology. He demonstrated the complex interrelationship of ideal models and political action within a historical context. His most influential ethnographic works were based on fieldwork in Burma, Sarawak and North Borneo (Sabah), and Sri Lanka. Although his initial theoretical approach was functionalist, Leach then shifted to processual analysis. Leach was later influenced by Claude Levi-Strass and adopted a structuralist approach. His 1962 publication Rethinking Anthropology offered a challenge to structural-functionalism (Seymour-Smith 1986:165).
Neofunctionalism is a revision of British structural-functionalism that experienced renewed activity during the 1980s. Some neo-functionalists, influenced by Parsons, analyze phenomena in terms of specific functional requisites. Others, although they place less emphasis on functional requisites and examine a variety of phenomena, also share similarities with functionalism by focusing on issues of social differentiation, integration, and social evolution. Finally, some neo-functionalists examine how cultural processes (including ritual, ideology, and values) integrate social structures. Generally, there is little emphasis on how phenomena meet or fail to meet system needs (Turner and Maryanski 1991).
INTRODUCING PSYCHOLOGY Psychology: scientific study of behavior and mental processes.\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Psychology Perspectives (approaches to studying psychology) psy\u00b7chol\u00b7o\u00b7gy Noun: 1.The scientific study of the human mind and its functions, esp. those.\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Chapter 1 Introduction and History of Psychology.\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Heads up! Before we begin \u2026\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n The Major Psychological Perspectives. Major Perspectives A. There are five leading approaches to studying and explaining mental processes and behavior.\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n The History of Psychology Chapter 1 Section 2. Where did the scientific method come from? Wilhelm Wundt \u2013 1879 \u2013 Leipzig, Germany \u2013 First psychology laboratory.\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Copyright \u00a9 Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 1 Introduction and History of Psychology.\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Riverton Collegiate Institute Psychology 40S Instructor: Mr. Ewert.\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Chapter 1 Section 4 Contemporary Perspectives. Objectives Describe the seven main contemporary perspectives in psychology.\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Contemporary Perspectives in Psychology. Behavioral Social Cognitive Theory n40hU&safe=active\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n A Brief History of Psychology\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n 1.2 A Brief History of Psychology 6 Contemporary Approaches.\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Psychology Contemporary Perspective (1:4). Six Perspectives \u25ba Biological \u25ba Cognitive \u25ba Humanistic \u25ba Psychoanalytic \u25ba Learning \u25ba Sociocultural.\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Contemporary Perspectives How do we explain human behaviour in a contemporary perspective? CP-10\/14 Q1.\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY. PSYCHOLOGY Psychology is the scientific study of behaviour and mental processes There are 7 sub-fields of Psychology: Biological:\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Current Views on Behavior & Thinking\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Perspectives Of Psychology. Biological Perspective Emphasizes physical causes of behavior Look for connections between events in the brain and behavior\/mental.\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Psychological Perspectives on Behavior MCGONIGLE INTRO TO PSYCH.\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Psychological Perspectives\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n 1\/26\/15 Review: Define theory and principle. Preview: list at least 2 types of specialized psychology. ACT WORD: Ethical - pertaining to morals; pertaining.\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n 6 Perspectives. Biological emphasizes the influence of Biology on our behavior and mental processes looks at the nervous system (especially the brain)\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Modern Perspectives in Psychology Pages 15 to 19.\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Chapter 1: What Is Psychology?. Learning Outcomes Define psychology. Describe the various fields of psychology.\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Introduction, History, The Six Psychological Perspectives\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Seven Approaches\/Perspectives Psychoanalytic Cognitivist\/Cognitive Humanistic Neuroscience\/Biological Behavioral\/Learning Socio-Cultural Evolutionary.\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Set up the first psychology laboratory in an apartment near Leipzig, Germany. Wilhelm Wundt.\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Chapter 1 Section 2: A Brief History of Psychology.\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Bell Ringer \uf0a8 Use your device to find and download this app: \uf0a4 Socrative Student \uf0a8 Take the Chapter 1 Pre-Test.\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 1 Chapter 1 WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY Section 1: Why Study Psychology? Section 2: What Psychologists.\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Psychology Chapter 1 Review. Which psychologist introduced reinforcement?\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Copyright \u00a9 Allyn & Bacon 2007 This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public.\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Psychological Perspectives Seven Ways of Approaching Psychology.\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Psychology. Is the scientific study of behavior and the mental process \u2013This study can be observable: what you can see, measure, etc\u2026 behavior \u2013Can be.\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Psychology: History and Approaches\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Perspectives Perspectives Key Characteristics Contributors\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Groups for Perspective Presentations\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n 5 to 7 minutes to work on notecards!\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Chapter 1 WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n History of Psychology and Contemporary Perspectives\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Chapter 1 WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Chapter 1 What is Psychology?.\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Psychology The Study of the Mind\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Contemporary Perspectives\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Psychology The Study of the Mind\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Psychology: The scientific study of behavior and mental processes.\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Chapter 1.2 (B): Contemporary Approaches to Psychology\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Contemporary Perspectives\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n MODERN PERSPECTIVES Subtitle.\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Approaches to Psychology\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Contemporary Perspectives\n \n \n \n \n "]; Similar presentations